21

ENDNOTES

1

This report was written, principally, by Gene Nichol and Heather Hunt of the Center on Poverty, Work and Opportunity at the University of North Carolina for the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation. Much guidance in its formulation, however, was received from an advisory committee setting the outline and direction for the research project—all faculty members, from a variety of disciplines, at the University of North Carolina: Ferrel Guillory, Jesse White, Paul Voss, Peter Leousis, Daniel Gitterman, Mai Nguyen and Jonathan Morgan. Paul Voss and Jon Breece worked extensively with U.S. Census materials and developed many of the graphics herein. Special thanks, as well, to Mary Fant Donnan of Z. Smith Reynolds for setting course of the effort.

 
2

Rob Christensen, The Paradox of Tar Heel Politics: The Personalities, Elections, and Events that Shaped Modern North Carolina 8 (UNC Press, 2008).

 
3

Id. at 305.

 
4

Christensen, supra note 2, at 42.

 
5

Christensen, supra note 2, at 45.

 
6

Christensen, supra note 2, at 42.

 
7

C. Vann Woodward, Origins of the New South, 1877-1913 400-401 (LA. State U. Press, 1951).

 
8

Kris James Mitchener & Ian W. McLean, The Productivity of U.S. States Since 1880 2 (Nat’l Bureau of Econ. Research, Working Paper No. 9445, 2003) available at www.nber.org/papers/w9445 (last visited Jan. 31, 2010).

 
9

Christensen, supra note 2, at 64.

 
10

Christensen, supra note 2, at 111.

 
11

See, Robert R. Korstad & James L. Leloudis, Citizen Soldiers: The North Carolina Volunteers and the War on Poverty, 62 Law & Contemp. Probs., 177, 178 (1999) available at www.law.duke.edu/shell/cite.pl?62+Law+&+Contemp.+Probs.+177+(Autumn+1999) (noting that in 1961, 37 percent of North Carolina’s residents had incomes below the federal poverty line). The N.C. Rural Economic and Development Center estimates that in 1960 roughly 1.8 million of 4.5 million people in North Carolina were poor, www.ncruralcenter.org/databank/trendpage_Poverty.asp.

 
12

Christensen, supra note 2, at 306.

 
13

N.C. Progress Bd., North Carolina 20/20 Update Report 4 (2005).

 
14

U.S. Census Bureau, 1980 Census, Chapter A, 4, www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1980a_ncABC-01.pdf.

 
15

Id. (Defining “urban” as “comprising all territory, population, and housing units in urbanized areas and in places of 2,500 or more persons outside urbanized areas.” Any place that is not urban is by definition rural).

 
16

U.S. Census Bureau, 1980 Census, Chapter C, Table 59, 33, http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1980a_ncABC-05.pdf.

 
17

U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census, Summary File 1, Urban and Rural.

 
18

U.S. Census Bureau, July 2009 Population Estimate (2009).

 
19

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Population Projections, Table 1: Ranking of Census 2000 and Projected 2030 State Population and Change: 2000 to 2030. But see, William H. Frey, Brookings Institution, A Rollercoaster Decade for Migration (2009) (Noting that the current recession has slowed, or in some cases reversed, migration to Sun Belt states, casting some doubt on earlier prognostications. Nevertheless, while migration to North Carolina decreased in absolute number terms for 2008-09 compared to previous years, it was the second most popular destination state for domestic migrants).

 
20

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau News, March 19, 2009 available at www.census.gov/PressRelease/www/releases/archives/population/013426.html (last visited Feb. 2, 2010). (listing eleven counties in N.C. among the 100 fastest-growing counties in the U.S. between 2007 and 2008—Union, Wake, Brunswick, Johnston, Cabarrus, Chatham, Franklin, Pender, Harnett, Mecklenburg and Hoke).

 
21

N.C. Off. of State Budget & Mgmt., 2008 Certified County Population Estimates, www.osbm.state.nc.us/ncosbm/facts_and_figures/socioeconomic_data/population_estimates/demog/countygrowth_cert_2008.html (last updated Sept. 8, 2009).

 
22

U.S. Census Bureau, supra, note 17.

 
23

N.C. Off. of State Budget & Mgmt., How North Carolina Ranks 3 (2009) available at http://data.osbm.state.nc.us/staterank/state_rankings.pdf.

 
24

U.S. Census Bureau, supra, note 16.

 
25

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B03002. Hispanic or Latino Origin by Race.

 
22
26

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B02001. Race.

 
27

U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, B03002. Hispanic or Latino Origin by Race: North Carolina.

 
28

Id.

 
29

N.C. St. Bd. of Educ., Dep’t of Pub. Instruction, Facts and Figures 2008-09, www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/fbs/resources/data/factsfigures/2008-09figures.pdf (last visited Feb. 2, 2010).

 
30

Annie E. Casey Foundation, KIDS COUNT Data Ctr., Cohort Graduation Rate, 2007, http://datacenter.kidscount.org/data/bystate/Map.aspx?state=NC&ind=2269 (showing, for example, 44 North Carolina school systems have a graduation rate exceeding Martin County’s by 20 or more percentage points) (last visited Jan. 31, 2010).

 
31

U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census, Summary File 3, P38. Armed Forces Status by School Enrollment by Educational Attainment by Employment Status for the Population 16 to 19 Years and 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, B14005. Sex by School Enrollment by Educational Attainment by Employment Status for the Population 16 to 19 Years (ranking North Carolina twelfth highest among states in “idle youth” and reflecting higher rates in Robeson, Bladen, Hoke, Warren, Vance, Granville and Wilson counties).

 
32

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, S1703. Selected Characteristics of People at Specified Levels of Poverty in the Past 12 Months.

 
33

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B19013. Median Household Income in the Past 12 Months (in 2008 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars).

 
34

See, e.g., Leandro v. State, 488 S.E.2d 249 (N.C. 1997).

 
35

See, Mark Nord, et al., U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Household Food Insecurity in the United States, 2008, 20 (2009) (indicating that 13.7 percent of North Carolinians are “food insecure”—experiencing hunger in a land, and a state, of plenty).

 
36

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B25070. Gross Rent as Percentage of Household Income in the Past 12 Months.

 
37

N.C. Equal Access to Justice Comm’n, The Initial Report of the N.C. Equal Access to Justice Commission, Executive Summary 7, 8 (2008).

 
38

N.C. Inst. of Med., Motion Chart of State Uninsured Rates: 1999-2009, www.nciom.org/uninsuredstates.html (showing that in March 2009, the rate of growth of uninsured persons in North Carolina is the highest in the U.S.) (last visited Feb. 2, 2010). See also, Cecil G. Sheps Ctr. for Health Servs. Research and N.C. Inst. of Med., Updating Uninsured Estimates for Current Economic Conditions: State Specific Estimates 5 (2009).

 
39

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, S1703. Selected Characteristics of People at Specified Levels of Poverty in the Past 12 Months.

 
40

Annie E. Casey Foundation, KIDS COUNT Data Center, Children in Poverty (Percent), http://datacenter.kidscount.org/data/acrossstates/Rankings.aspx?loct=2&by=v&order=a&ind=43&dtm=322&tf=35 (last visited Feb. 2, 2010).

 
41

Nat’l Ctr. for Children in Poverty, 50-State Demographics Wizard, www.nccp.org/tools/demographics/ (select “North Carolina” and “Income Level,” click “Create Table”) (defining “low income” as less than twice the federal poverty threshold) (last visited Jan. 31, 2010).

 
42

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, S1703. Selected Characteristics of People at Specified Levels of Poverty in the Past 12 Months.

 
43

Id.

 
44

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, S1702. Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months of Families.

 
45

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B17017. Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months by Household Type by Age of Householder.

 
46

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B17002. Ratio of Income to Poverty Level in the Past 12 Months.

 
47

Corp. for Enterprise Dev. (CFED), 2009-2010 Asset and Opportunity Scorecard, Net Worth by Race, http://scorecard.cfed.org/financial.php?page=net_worth_by_race (last visited Feb. 2, 2010). See also, CFED, Asset and Opportunity Scorecard, Net Worth, http://scorecard.cfed.org/financial.php?page=net_worth (defining “net worth” as “the sum of assets attributable to any individual age 15 years and older in a household less any liabilities.”) (last visited Feb. 2, 2010).

 
23
48

Corp. for Enterprise Dev. (CFED), 2009-2010 Asset and Opportunity Scorecard, Asset Poverty Rate, http://scorecard.cfed.org/financial.php?page=asset_poverty_rate (last visited Feb. 2, 2010).

 
49

The living income formula usually calculates the cost of housing, food, childcare, health care, transportation, other necessities and taxes, but excludes work supports and other subsidies. It does not include any margin for the occasional splurge (dining out, movies or entertainment, cable) nor does it allow for accumulation of savings. See, John Quinterno, et al., N.C. Justice Ctr., Making Ends Meet on Low Wages: The 2008 North Carolina Living Income Standard (2008).

 
50

U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, B17002. Ratio of Income to Poverty Level in the Past 12 Months.

 
51

U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census, Summary File 3, P82. Per Capita Income in 1999 (Dollars).

 
52

U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census, Summary File 3, QT-P34. Poverty Status in 1999 of Individuals.

 
53

U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census, Summary File 3, QT-P24. Employment Status by Sex.

 
54

Allen Serkin & Stephen Whitlow, Ctr. for Urb. and Regional Stud., U. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, The State of North Carolina Urban Distressed Communities (2005).

 
55

Id. at 4. The three criteria for distressed tracts are: 1) an unemployment rate greater than or equal to 150% of the North Carolina average unemployment rate; 2) per capita income less than or equal to 67% of the North Carolina average per capita income; and 3) Poverty rate greater than or equal to 150% of the North Carolina average poverty rate.

 
56

Serkin & Whitlow, supra note 54, at 16 and 18.

 
57

Serkin & Whitlow, supra note 54, at 22.

 
58

Bur. of Labor Statistics, U.S. Dep’t of Labor, Local Area Unemployment Statistics, September 2008 and September 2009, http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/dsrv?la (select “North Carolina,” “Metropolitan areas,” “Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area,” and “unemployment rate”; choose “not seasonally adjusted,” and “retrieve data”) (last visited Feb. 2, 2010) and the Employment Security Commission of North Carolina, Civilian Labor Force Estimates for N.C. Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 2009, http://eslmi40.esc.state.nc.us/ThematicLAUS/clfasp/CLFAASY.asp (select “Metropolitan Statistical Areas” and “2009”; click “View Data”) (last visited Feb. 2, 2010).

 
59

Gary Robertson, NC Foreclosure Filings Up by 17 Percent in 2009, Associated Press, Jan. 5, 2010, http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory?id=9485373 (showing that an average of 1 out of 65 homes is in foreclosure in the U.S.; in N.C. that number is 1 in 180) (last visited Feb. 2, 2010).

 
60

N.C. Administrative Office of the Courts, N.C. Foreclosure Help, www.ncforeclosurehelp.org/Research.aspx (last visited Jan. 31, 2010).

 
61

Id.

 
62

Ctr. for Responsible Lending, The Financial Crisis in North Carolina and the Need for a Consumer Financial Protection Agency: September 2009 Estimates and Projections 1 (2009).

 
63

N.C. Administrative Office of the Courts, N.C. Foreclosure Help, supra note 60.

 
64

N.C. Administrative Office of the Courts, N.C. Foreclosure Starts Hotspots, www.ncforeclosurehelp.org/global/docs/AOCReportingHotspots.pdf (follow the “NC Foreclosure Data” link) (last visited Jan. 31, 2010).

 
65

Ctr. for Responsible Lending, supra note 62.

 
66

For a comparison of housing costs, see, U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census, Historical Census of Housing Tables: Home Values, www.census.gov/hhes/www/housing/census/historic/values.html; U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B25077. Median Value (Dollars) Owner-Occupied Housing Units. For a comparison of median household income, see, U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census, P53. Median Household Income in 1999 (Dollars); U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B19013. Median Household Income in the Past 12 Months (in 2008 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars).

 
67

N.C. Housing Coalition, Addressing the Affordable Housing Crisis, www.nchousing.org/advocacy-1/advocacy/campaign/addressing_the_need (last visited Jan. 31, 2010) (describing the federal housing policy definition of affordability as housing-related expenses equal to no more than 30 percent of a renter’s or homeowner’s gross income).

 
68

Nat’l Low Income Housing Coalition, Out of Reach 2009: Persistent Problems, New Challenges for Renters (2009) (State Summary Table, available at www.nlihc.org/oor/oor2009/statesummary.pdf) (last visited Jan. 31, 2010).

 
69

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B25070. Gross Rent as Percentage of Household Income in the Past 12 Months.

 
24
70

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B25091. Mortgage Status by Selected Monthly Owner Costs as a Percentage of Household Income in the Past 12 Months.

 
71

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B25048. Plumbing Facilities for Occupied Housing Units.

 
72

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B25052. Kitchen Facilities for Occupied Housing Units.

 
73

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, B25040. House Heating Fuel (Showing that thirty-six of the eighty-one counties tallied had over 100 occupied housing units that did not have an identifiable source of heat. Mecklenburg (673), Wake (572), Cumberland (410), Davidson (374) and Forsyth (332) had the highest number of unheated housing units).

 
74

U.S. Census Bureau, 2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, C25043. Tenure by Telephone Service Available.